The award of the 2000 Nobel Prize for Literature to Gao Xingjian,
last October 12th, caused a stir in Asia, where the writers name was generally
associated only with literary debates of the early 1980s and with avant-garde
theatre, as in the West where his novels, plays and pictures were known, at least
to a number of devotees. Bernard Pivot, the presenter of the arts programme Bouillon
de Culture on French television, admitted on air, the day following the award,
that he himself knew nothing of Gao Xingjianthis, despite the fact that
more than six thousand copies of the French translation of Soul Mountain had
already been sold since its publication in 1995, and that his plays had been performed
in several French cities including Paris. Furthermore, as early as December 1995,
Libération had devoted three pages to Gao, and the critic Jean-Luc
Douin had put him on the front page of Le Monde des Livres in March 2000
when One Mans Bible was translated into French and the French version
of Soul Mountain was reissued in paperback.
In China itself, a recent history of contemporary Chinese
literature did include Gao Xingjian, and mentioned his novel Soul Mountain;
it even published a recent photo of him((1). While it is true that, through force
of circumstance, Gao has played no part in the literary life of mainland China
since his voluntary departure for the West at the end of 1987, the fact remains
that he had already published a great deal there and, later on, in Taiwan, in
Hong Kong and in Chinese-language reviews published in the West.
Gaos plays have frequently been performed, both in mainland
China (where after running into controversy they were sometimes banned) and then
in the West. Gilbert C. F. Fong, in his book entitled The Other Shore, Plays
by Gao Xingjian((2), mentions 32 successive productions between 1982 and 1999
in theatres in China, Yugoslavia, Sweden, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan,
Austria, France, Australia, Italy, Poland, Japan, the US, Romania and Ivory Coast.
He also lists six radio broadcasts of his plays, in Hungary, Great Britain, France
and the US.
Gao Xingjian has said in several interviews that he destroyed
much of what he wrote during the Cultural Revolution. When he took up work again
after 1976 he was highly productive, something that he spoke about to China
Perspectives in 1998((3). The interview published there included numerous
In February 2001, he visited Hong Kong and was enthusiastically
welcomed therethough the authorities kept a low profile; he went on to Taiwan
where he was fêted both in the media and at the highest official level.
While denying any wish to set himself up as a spokesman, he has devoted several
lectures to the role of literature (literature as a raison dêtre,
which was the theme of his Stockholm address) and to his own work.
Now that his novels are enjoying a rare success in France,
in the Anglo-Saxon world, in Taiwan and even, smuggled in and widely circulated,
in mainland China (and now too that controversy has arisen over whether he was
the right choice for the Nobel Prize), we think it useful to offer the most exhaustive
possible bibliography of his work, so that readers may gauge its significance
and come to know it more easily.
Translated from French by Philip Liddell
Bibliography of Gao Xingjians works in Chinese, French
Novels and short stories
Hanye de xingchen (Stars in the Frosty Night) (novel),
Guangzhou, Huacheng, No. 3, 1979.
You zhi hezi jiao Hongchun (A Pigeon Called Read Beak)
(novel), Shanghai, Shouhuo, No. 3, 1981.
Pengyou (Friend) (short story), Henan, Mangyuan,
No. 2, 1981.
Yu, xue ji qita (Rain, Snow and Other Things) (short
story), Peking, Chou xiaoya, No. 7, 1981.
Lushang (On the Road) (short story), Peking, Renmin
wenxue, No. 9, 1982.
Haishang (On the Sea) (short story), Peking, Chou
xiaoya, No. 9, 1982.
Ershiwunian hou (Twenty-five Years After) (short story),
Shanghai, Wenhui yuekan, No. 11, 1982.
Huahuan (The Flower Wreath) (short story), Shanghai,
Wenhui yuekan, No. 5, 1983.
Yuanensi (The Temple) (short story), Dalian,
Haiyan, No. 8, 1983.
Muqin (Mother) (short story), Peking, Shiyue,
No. 4, 1983.
He neibian (On this Side of the River) (short story),
Nanjing, Zhongshan, No. 6, 1983.
Xiejiang he tade nüer (The Cobbler and his
Daughter) (short story), Chengdu, Qingnian zuojia, No. 3, 1983.
Huadou (Huadou) (short story), Peking, Renmin wenxue,
No. 9, 1984.
Huadou (Huadou) (film scenario), Peking, Chou xiaoya,
Nos 1 and 2, 1985.
Wuru (Insults) (short story), Peking, Chou xiaoya,
No. 7, 1985.
Gongyuanli (In the Park) (short story), Nanfang
wenxue, No. 4, 1985.
Chehuo (The Crash) (short story), Fujian wenxue,
No. 5, 1985.
Wuti (Without Title) (short story), Xiaoshuo zhoubao,
No. 1, 1985.
Gei wo laoye mai yugan (Buying a Fishing Rod for my
Grandfather) (short story), Peking, Renmin wenxue, No. 9, 1986.
Mère (Muqin), trans. in French by Paul Poncet,
Brèves, No. 23, 1986.
Dans le parc (Gongyuanli), trans. in French
by Paul Poncet, Le Monde, May 18th 1986, also in Une canne à
pêche pour mon grand-père (Gei wo laoye mai yugan), trans.
in French by Noël Dutrait, La Tour dAigues, éditions de lAube,
Gei wo laoye mai yugan (Buying a Fishing Rod for my
Grandfather), Taipei, Lianhe chubanshe, 1989. A collection of short stories: Pengyou
(Friend), Ni yiding yao huozhe (Craving to live), Yu, xue ji qita
(Rain, Snow and Other Things), Lushang (On the Road), Ershiwunian hou
(Twenty-five Years After), Huahuan (The Flower Wreath), Haishang
(On the Sea), Xiejiang he tade nüer (The Cobbler and his Daughter),
Huadou (Huadou), Yuanensi (The Temple), Muqin (Mother),
Wuru (Insults), He neibian (On this Side of the River), Gongyuanli
(In tne Park), Chehuo (The Crash), Choujin (The Cramp), Gei
wo laoye mai yugan (Buying a Fishing Rod for my Grandfather), Ba (Epilogue).
Lingshan (Soul Mountain) (novel), Taipei, Lianjing
chubanshe, 1990. Foreword by Ma Sen. Republished in 2000, includes the Nobel prize
academy official winning declaration, Gaos most well known speech on literature,
Wenxue de liyou (The Case for Literature), his Nobel prize acceptance speech
and a short bio-bibliography.
Shunjian (One Instant) (short story), Taipei, Zhongshi
wanbao, special, No. 74, September 1st 1991.
La Montagne de lAme (Lingshan) (novel), trans.
in French by Noël & Liliane Dutrait, La Tour dAigues, Editions
de lAube, 1995. Republished in paperback in 2000. Foreword by Noël
Une canne à pêche pour mon grand-père
(Gei wo laoye mai yugan), trans. in French by Noël Dutrait, La Tour
dAigues, éditions de lAube, 1997. Republished in paperback
in 2001. Foreword by Noël Dutrait. Includes: Yuanensi (The Temple),
Gongyuanli (In the Park), Chehuo (The Crash), Choujin (The
Cramp), Gei wo laoye mai yugan (Buying a Fishing Rod for my Grandfather),
and Shunjian (One Instant), excerpts from Zhoumo sichongzou (Week-end
Quartet), Hong Kong, Xianggang xinshiji chubanshe, 1996.
Yigeren de shengjing (One Mans Bible) (novel),
Taipei, Lianjing chubanshe, 1999, republished in 2000. Foreword by Noël Dutrait,
postscript by Liu Zaifu.
Le Livre dun homme seul (Yigeren de shengjing)
(novel), trans. in French by Noël and Liliane Dutrait, La Tour dAigues,
Editions de lAube, 2000.
Soul Mountain (Lingshan), trans. in English by Mabel
Lee, Flamingo, Harper Collins Publishers, 2000. Includes an annex with all major
publications of Gao Xingjian, a list of his works translated in English and a
bibliography of studies dealing with his writings.
Essays and articles
Falanxi xiandai wenxue de tongku (Modern French
Literature Sufferings) Wuhan, Waiguo wenxue yanjiu, No. 1, 1980.
Faguo xiandaipai renmin shiren Pulieweier he tade
Geciji (The French Modernist-Populist poet Jacques Prévert
and the collection of poems Paroles), Canton, Huacheng, No.
Ba Jin zai Bali (Ba Jin in Paris), Peking, Dangdai,
No. 1, 1980.
Xiandai xiaoshuo jiqiao chutan (A Preliminary Discussion
of the Art of Modern Fiction), Guangzhou, Huacheng chubanshe, 1981.
Yidali suixiangqu (Italian Capriccio), Guangzhou,
Huacheng, No. 3, 1981.
Tan xiaoshuoguan yu xiaoshuo jiqiao (On the Perspective
Regarding Novel Writings and Techniques), Nanjing, Zhongshan, No. 6, 1982.
Tan xiandai xiaoshuo yu duzhe de guanxi (On the
Relation between Modern Novels and the Readers), Chengdu, Qingnian zuojia,
No. 3, 1983.
Tan leng shuqing yu fan shuqing (On Cold Lyricism
and Anti-lyricism), Henan, Wenxue zhishi, n ° 3, 1983.
Zhipu yu chunjing (Simplicity and Purity), Shanghai,
Wenxuebao, May 19th 1983.
Lun xijuguan (Discussion on my Conception of Theatre),
Shanghai, Xijujie, No. 1, 1983.
Tan duoshengbu xiju shiyan (On Multiple Voices
Stage Experiments), Peking, Xiju dianyingbao, No. 25, 1983.
Tan xiandai xiju shouduan (On Processes in Modern
Theatre), series of articles published in issues Nos. 1 to 6 of Suibi,
Wode xiju guan (My Conception of Theatre), Peking,
Xiju luncong, No. 4, 1984.
Yeren he wo (A Wild Man and Me), Peking, Xiju
dianyingbao, No. 19, 1985.
Wo yu Bulaixite (Me and Brecht), Peking, Qingyi,
supplément de 1985.
Yao shenmeyang de xiju (What Kind of Drama Do
We Want), Peking, Wenyi yanjiu, No. 4, 1986. In French translation in LImaginaire,
No. 1, 1986.
Ping Geluoduofusiji de maixiang zhipuxiju
(Commentaries on the theatre of poverty of Grotowski), Peking, Xijubao,
No. 7, 1986.
Tan xiqu buyao gaige yu yao gaige (Is it Necessary
or not to Reform Traditional Opera), Peking, Xiqu yanjiu, No. 21, 1986.
Jinghua yetan (Evening Talks in Peking), Nanjing,
Dui yizhong xiandai xiju de zhuiqiu (Studies for
a Modern Theatre), Peking, Zhongguo xiju chubanshe, 1988.
Chidaole de xiandaizhuyi yu dangjin Zhongguo wenxue
(Belated Modernism and Todays Chinese Literature), Peking, Wenxue pinglun,
No. 3, 1988.
To Revive the Appetite for Language, in Strindberg,
ONeill and the Modern Theatre, Claes Englund, Gunnel Bergström
ed., Norsborg, 1990.
Wo zhuzhang yizhong leng de wenxue (I am an Advocate
of Cold Literature), Taipei, Zhongshi wanbao, special, August 12th 1990.
Taowang yu wenxue (Exile and Literature), Taipei,
Zhongshi wanbao, special, October 21st 1990.
Guanyu Taowang, (About Escape), Taipei,
Lianhebao, special, June 17th 1991.
Geri huanghua (Yesterdays Flowers), US,
Minzhu Zhongguo, No. 8, 1992.
Wenxue yu xuanxue, guanyu Lingshan
(Literature and Metaphysics), New York, Jintian, No. 3, 1992.
Zhongguo liuwang wenxue de kunjing (The Difficult
Situation of Chinese Literature in Exile), Hong Kong, Mingbao yuekan, No.
Clés pour mon théâtre, trans.
in French by Annie Curien, in Littératures dExtrême-Orient
au XXe siècle, Arles, Philippe Picquier, 1993.
Guojia shenhua yu geren diankuang (The State Myth
and Personal Madness), Hong Kong, Mingbao yuekan, No. 8, 1993.
Without Isms (Meiyou zhuyi), trans. in English
by Winnie Lau, Deborah Sauviat and Martin Williams, The Journal of the Oriental
Society of Australia, Nos. 27-28, 1995-1996.
Meiyou zhuyi (Without Isms), Hong Kong, Tiandi tushu
youxian gongsi, 1996. A collection of all Gao Xinjians essays and theoretical
writings after 1997. Republished by Lianjing in 2001 with the Stockholm speech
The Case of Literature.
Au plus près du réel, co-author Denis
Bourgeois, La Tour dAigues, Editions de lAube, 1997.
Le chinois moderne et lécriture littéraire,
trans. in French by Noël Dutrait, in Littérature chinoise, état
des lieux et mode demploi (Noël Dutrait ed.), Aix-en-Provence,
Publications de lUniversité de Provence, 1998.
Lesprit de liberté, ma France, Le
Monde, August 28th 1998.
Lécriture en exil, in Où
va la Chine (Jean-Jacques Gandini ed.), Paris, Editions du Félin, 2000.
La Raison dêtre de la littérature
(The Case of Literature), trans. in French by Noël and Liliane Dutrait, La
Tour dAigues, Editions de lAube, 2000.
Juedui xinhao (Absolute Signal), Peking, Shiyue,
No. 5, 1982.
Chezhan (Bus Station), Peking, Shiyue, No. 3,
Xiandai zhezixi (Modern Shorts), Nanjing, Zhongshan,
No. 4, 1984. Includes: Mofangzhe (The Imitator), Duoyu (Hiding from
the Rain), Xinglu nan (Tough Walk), Habala shankou (The Pass at
Dubai (Soliloquy), Peking, Xin juben, No. 1,
Yeren (Wilderness Man), Peking, Shiyue, No.
Gao Xingjian xijuji (Collected Plays of Gao Xingjian),
Peking, Qunzhong chubanshe, 1985. Includes: Juedui xinhao (Absolute Signal),
Chezhan (Bus Station), Xiandai zhezixi (Modern Shorts), Dubai
(Soliloquy), Yeren (Wilderness Man). Foreword by Wu Zuguang, this collection
includes Wode xiju guan (My Perspective on Theatre).
Bian (The Other Shore), Peking, Shiyue,
No. 5, 1986.
LArrêt dautobus (Bus Station) (excerpts),
trans. Danièle Turc-Crisa, in La Remontée vers le jour, nouvelles
de Chine (1978-1988), Aix-en-Provence, Alinéa, 1988.
Wild Man (Yeren), trans. Bruno Roubicek, Asian Theatre
Journal, No. 7, 1990.
La Fuite (Exile), trans. in French by Michèle
Guyot, edited by Emile Lansman, Carnières (Belgium), Lansman, 1992.
Shanhaijing zhuan (The Story of the Classic of Seas
and Mountains), Hong Kong, Tiandi tushu youxian gongsi, 1993.
Duihua yu fanjie (Dialogue and Rebuttal), New York,
Jintian, No. 2, 1993.
Au bord de la vie (Shengsi jie), Carnières (Belgium),
Le Somnambule (Yeyoushen), Carnières (Belgium),
Gao Xingjian xiju liuzhong (Six plays by Gao Xingjian),
Taipei, Dijiao chubanshe, 1996. Set of seven volumes that includes the following
plays: Bian (The Other Shore), Mingcheng (Hades), Shanhaijing
zhuan (The Story of the Classic of Seas and Mountains), Taowang (Exile),
Shengsi jie (Between Life and Death), Duihua yu fanjie (Dialogue
and Rebuttal); the seventh volume is a study by Hu Yaoheng on Gao Xingjians
theatre: Bainian gengyun de fengshou, wo dui Gao Xingjian xiju de shangxi
(A good harvest after a hundred years of ploughing, my analysis and my view of
Gao Xingjians theatre); several pictures of stage performances, conferences
and lectures, and reprints of newspapers articles.
The Other Side (Bian), trans. in English by Jo
Riley, in Martha P. Y. Cheung and Jane C. C. Lai, An Oxford Anthology
of Contemporary Chinese Drama, Oxford and New York, Hong Kong University Press,
Bus Stop (Chezhan), trans. in English by Kimberley
Besio, in Haiping Yan, Theatre and Society: An Anthology of Contemporary
Chinese Drama, Armonk, New York and London, M. E. Sharpe, 1998.
The Other Shore, plays by Gao Xingjian, trans.
in English by Gilbert C. F. Fong, Hong Kong, The Chinese University Press, 1999.
Includes The Other Shore, Between Life and Death, Dialogue and Rebuttal, Nocturnal
Wanderer, Weekend Quartet. Also features in its annex a list of Gaos
plays, reprints of critics of these plays published in Chinese, Japanese and other
foreign languages, and a list of stage performances or radio broadcastings.
Dialoguer-interloquer (Duihua yu fanjie), trans. in
French by Annie Curien (bilingual), Maison des écrivains étrangers
et des traducteurs de Saint-Nazaire, 1993.
Fugitives (Taowang), trans. in English by Gregory B.
Lee, Chinese Writing and Exile, The University of Chicago, The Center for
East Asian Studies, Selected Papers, No. 7, 1993.
Zhoumo sichongzou (Week-end Quartet), Hong Kong, Xianggang
xin shiji chubanshe, 1996. Includes Shunjian (One Instant), the poems suite
Shengsheng manbianzou, the poem Wo shuo ciwei (I Say Hedgehog).
Republished by Lianjing chubanshe in 2001 (only Zhoumo sichongzou).
Quatre quatuors pour un week-end (Zhoumo sichongzou),
Carnières (Belgium), Lansman, 1998.
Bayue xue (Snow in August), Taipei, Lianjing chubanshe,
Shengsheng manbianzou (poems suite), in Zhoumo sichongzou
(Week-end Quartet), Hong Kong, Xianggang xin shiji chubanshe, 1996.
Wo shuo ciwei (I Say Hedgehog), ibid.
Je dis hérisson (Wo shuo ciwei) (contemporary
ballad), trans. in French by Annie Curien, Poésie 96, No. 6, 1996.
Includes an interview with Gao Xingjian by Pierre Dubrunquez.
Ink Paintings by Gao Xingjian, Taipei, Taipei Fine
Arts Museum, 1995.
Goût de lencre, Paris, éditions
Richard Meir, 1996.
LEncre et la lumière, Paris, éditions
Richard Meir, 1998.
Linyizhong meixue (Another Kind of Aesthetics), Taipei,
éditions Lianjing, 2001.
Interviews with Gao Xingjian
We only indicate those of the interviews that were published
before Gao was awarded the Nobel prize.
Entretien avec Gao Xingjian (in French), interview
by Bernard Bretonnière, in Dialoguer-interloquer, Maison des écrivains
étrangers et des traducteurs de Saint-Nazaire, 1993.
Entretien avec Gao Xingjian (in French), in
Au bord de la vie, Carnières (Belgium), éditions Lansman, 1993.
Gao Xingjian, le peintre de lâme (in
French), interview by Robert Calvet, in Brèves, No. 56, hiver 1999.
Entretien avec Gao Xingjian (in French), interview
by Denis Lancry, in Sapriphage, No. 18, July 1993. Also includes chapter
16 of Soul Mountain.
A Writer in Exile: A Voice to Be HeardAn Interview
with Gao Xingjian, interview by Noël Dutrait, China Perspectives,
No. 20, November-December 1998, p. 57.
Entretien avec Annie Curien, La Nouvelle Revue
Française, No. 556, January 2001. This interview was given to Annie
Curien on October 7th 2000, exactly five days before Gao was awarded the Nobel
Studies on Gao Xingjians writings
Zhao Yiheng, Jianli yizhongxiandai chanju, Gao Xingjian
yu Zhongguo shiyan xiju (Towards a Modern Zen Theatre, Gao Xingjian and Chinese
Theatre Experimentalism), Taipei, Erya chubanshe, 1999.
Zhao Henry Y. H., Towards a Modern Zen Theatre, Gao Xingjian
and Chinese Theatre Experimentalism, Londres, SOAS, 2000. Includes a list
of Gao Xingjians plays and the locations of the stage performances, and
a selected bibliography of English studies on Gao Xingjians writings.
Books on Gao Xingjian
Anonymous, Gao Xingjian, Hong Kong, Mingbao chubanshe,
Liu Xinwu, Gao Xingjian, Hong Kong, Kaiyi chubanshe,
Yi Sha, Gao Xingjian pingshuo, Hong Kong, Mingjing