Keywords: Constitutional amendment, Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, Hong Kong Budget, Taiwan Strait
CHINA – POLITICS
1. President Xi Jinping’s move to end constitutional limits sparked widespread controversy
Overshadowing the National People’s Congress’ meeting which usually showcased economic and development initiatives, Xi Jinping’s plan to end constitutional limits on his term as president has sparked widespread controversy. Favoring Xi’s proposal to rule indefinitely, Party officials have defended the ending of the two-term limits as a necessary move to ensure the continuity of China’s long-term agendas such as “making state industry competitive and productive, developing profitable high-tech industry, reducing poverty and cleaning up China’s battered environment” (Chicago Tribune, 4 March 2018). On the other, in the time when people are increasingly reluctant to voice opinion, Xi’s proposal is met with concern among political observers, considering such move would reverse “a decades-long trend toward power sharing and institutionalization of political norms started under reformist leader Deng Xiaoping in the 1980s as a safeguard against dictatorship” (Associated Press, 4 March 2018). Indeed, the main concern is “whether China is set to repeat past mistakes where unquestioning observance to its leadership contributed to disasters like the Great Leap Forward of the 1950s and Cultural Revolution a decade later” (TIME, 26 February 2018). For example, Professor Nick Bisley at La Trobe University suggests that there is a risk of China to “become courtier culture, sycophancy, just telling him what he wants to hear” (TIME, 26 February 2018). Moreover, this concern has extended to the general public, as the searched items on Baidu such as “migration” (移民) and “1984” has recorded significant increase within the three hours after Xi’s announcement was made on 26 February 2018.
- //在近30年的時間裡，任期限制一直是中國共產黨內部權力移交的正式機制，它是規範政治精英爭權奪利的有效方式，也是疏解民眾不滿的安全閥。取消任期限制會讓這個憎惡不確定性的系統產生新的不可預測性。如今讓習近平變得更強大的東西，可能會在未來讓中國共產黨變得弱小。[…] 取消任期限制會讓那些想成為領導人的人失去伺機以待、等候習近平任期結束的動力，特別是當他們和習近平從屬於不同的政治派系的時候。遊戲規則也變得更加難以預測。習近平會在三屆任期結束後退休嗎？四屆？或是永不下台？由於沒有明確的繼任者，任何需要交接權力的突然時刻也變得更加令人擔憂。如果他生病或去世了，誰來代替他? // Source: 紐約時報中文網, 5 March 2018, https://cn.nytimes.com/opinion/20180305/xi-jinping-china/zh-hant/
- // 該提議將交予於3月5日召開的十三屆全國人民代表大會第一次會議進行審議。與此同時，該修改意見亦引起輿論的強烈反應，自昨日下午4時左右關於修改意見的新華社英文短訊發布後，百度搜索指數中「移民」一詞的搜索頻率激增，但目前百度已關閉該詞彙的數據顯示。此外，微信、微博兩個大陸主要社交平台昨日起均不可進行更換頭像、暱稱、個人簡介等修改，微博亦相繼屏蔽「我反對」、「吾皇萬歲」、「登基」、「移民」、「袁世凱」等詞彙。 昨日下午有關修憲的信息公布後，百度搜索指數中「1984」、「移民」等詞彙搜索頻率開始激增，「1984」一詞出現半年內最高峰，而「移民」、「鄧小平」、「稱帝」、「袁世凱」、「張勳」等詞的數據均以「暫不提供數據，且不提供創建新詞服務」顯示。 在微博中，「be this guy」、「鄧小平」、「熊」、「終身制」等多組詞彙在昨晚遭屏蔽，今日仍有部分尚未解封，而網民昨晚在微博中發布的關於動畫《維尼小熊》截圖及台詞也均被刪除。自稱為蒐集新浪用戶被當局屏蔽或刪除微博的網站「自由微博」中顯示，含有「連任」、「憲法」、「袁世凱」、「維尼」、「移民」等詞的微博被刪除和屏蔽得較多。 // Source: Initium, 26 February 2018, https://theinitium.com/roundtable/20180226-roundtable-zh-revise-constitution/
2. Technology entrepreneurs gained strongest presence at the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, while technological development was laid out as one of China’s top priorities at the National People’s Congress
Replacing property developers and management staff of state-owned industries, technology entrepreneurs have gained the strongest presence ever at the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, as almost all the 2,158 delegates who debuted as advisers came from technology firms. Some of the most notable delegates include Liu Qiangdong (founder of JD.com), Ding Lei (founder of NetEase), and Ma Huateng (founder of Tencent). According to Sun Xin at King’s College in London, “the move reflects the party’s commitment to economic transformation based on industrial upgrading and technological innovation” while “traditional sectors such as real estate and energy are often deemed to be closely associated with corruption” (SCMP, 4 March 2018). On the other side at the National People’s Congress, Premier Li Keqiang has also pledged to accelerate China’s technological development, especially artificial intelligence, by attracting foreign talents and venture investments as of the country’s top priorities in 2018. Targeting to become the world’s AI (artificial intelligence) leader by 2030 as previously outlined in a development plan published in 2017, Chan’s pledge confirmed “China’s renewed efforts to transform itself from the factory floor of the world into a global innovation powerhouse and echoes President Xi Jinping at the 19th Communist Party Congress” (SCMP, 5 March 2018).
- // Technology is already a major contributor to China’s economy, underscored by the dominance of internet-based businesses and online advertising. China accounts for US$1 out of every US$4 dollar generated globally across application stores, according to analytics company AppAnnie, with Chinese app users spending more than 200 billion hours in apps in the fourth quarter of 2017, more than 4.5 times more than the next largest market India, and way ahead of the US in third place. […] Slashing the number of developers offers a clear signal of the government’s opposition to real estate speculation, and a nod to Chinese President Xi Jinping’s instruction last October for property to be “for living, not for speculation,” said Beijing-based independent economist Hu Xingdou. “If more property tycoons arise, that means China’s economy is out of shape,” Hu said. “Fewer people will be willing to contribute to the real economy and national industries. The real estate sector is also a hotbed for corruption because it’s connected to hundreds of government approvals.” // Source: South China Morning Post, 4 March 2018, http://www.scmp.com/business/companies/article/2135642/tech-entrepreneurs-replace-real-estate-tycoons-political-advisers
- //从 2017 年开始，政策的重点已经从人工智能技术转向技术和产业的融合。特别是2017 年 7 月国务院印发的《新一代人工智能发展规划》，其中明确指出：“我国经济发展进入新常态，深化供给侧结构性改革任务非常艰巨，必须加快人工智能深度应用，培育壮大人工智能产业，为我国经济发展注入新动能。” 不仅如此，这份《新一代人工智能发展规划》还为我国人工智能产业设定了三个阶段性的目标： 2020 年，人工智能产业竞争力进入国际第一方阵。初步建成人工智能技术标准、服务体系和产业生态链，培育若干全球领先的人工智能骨干企业，人工智能核心产业规模超过1500亿元，带动相关产业规模超过1万亿元。 2025 年，人工智能产业进入全球价值链高端。新一代人工智能在智能制造、智能医疗、智慧城市、智能农业、国防建设等领域得到广泛应用，人工智能核心产业规模超过4000亿元，带动相关产业规模超过5万亿元。 2030 年，人工智能产业竞争力达到国际领先水平。人工智能在生产生活、社会治理、国防建设各方面应用的广度深度极大拓展，形成涵盖核心技术、关键系统、支撑平台和智能应用的完备产业链和高端产业群，人工智能核心产业规模超过1万亿元，带动相关产业规模超过10万亿元。 2018 年伊始，李克强又重新强调，加强新一代人工智能研发应用，运用新技术、新业态、新模式，大力改造提升传统产业。中国的人工智能技术产业化或迎来最好的时机。// Source: 千家网, 5 March 2018, http://www.qianjia.com/html/2018-03/05_286339.html
CHINA – TECHNOLOGIES
1. Virtual reality officially entered a Chinese court to reconstruct crime scene
During a trial at Beijing’s Intermediate People’s Court on 1 March 2018, a witness of a homicide incident became the first person in China to use a VR (virtual reality) headset to revisit the crime scene where a 30-year-old man Zhang stabbed his 19-year-old ex-girlfriend Liu to death. Projected on a screen for the rest of the court, the VR technology re-enacted a 3D simulation of the animated interior of the crime scene and the involved parties where the only witness Dong (colleague of Zhang) used a pair of controllers to demonstrate what happened in the event. While PowerPoint was previously being used to make cases more demonstrative in Chinese courts, the “witness visualization system”, according to Chinese news sources, will be widely implemented in every courtroom in Beijing, as VR technology is increasingly used outside the field of entertainment. For example, Taiwan has recently announced that VR technology will be used in legal examinations later this year.
- // 昨天的庭審中，法庭的公訴人一側，有兩排座位。第一排是三名公訴人和被害人的親屬及代理人，第二排就坐的則是負責操作“出庭示證可視化係統”的檢方技術人員。 庭審進入舉證質證環節後，本案唯一一位目擊證人董某出庭作證，他是被害人的同事，也在案發現場目睹了整個案發經過。公訴人請證人董某戴上放在證人席的VR眼鏡，並讓其用手操作手柄控制方向和位置，“請你以你的視角，還原案發時的情況，操作時慢一點，不要晃，可以邊操作邊説話。” 董某戴上VR眼鏡後，大屏幕上的一個辦公室場景開始轉動，“當時我就站在這個位置，看到他拿刀刺向被害人。”場景轉向辦公室內的一張辦公桌，“就是在這扎的”。隨著董某的操作，大屏幕的場景不斷變化，現場的人都能感受到當時的情景。 董某退庭之後，公訴人又通過“出庭示證可視化係統”展示了另外一名證人的證言筆錄。公訴人邊念邊用手在自己面前的觸屏上邊“劃重點”，相應的大屏幕上的筆錄文字下方就出現了紅線，現場人員看得非常清晰。// Source: Xinhua, 2 March 2018, http://big5.xinhuanet.com/gate/big5/www.xinhuanet.com/legal/2018-03/02/c_1122474420.htm
- // Previously, lawyers have turned to mind maps, timelines, and videos to present the facts of a case and visually convey their evidence, Ma Ruofei, a criminal lawyer at King & Capital Law Firm in Beijing, told Sixth Tone. Virtual reality should not be universally applied just yet, Ma said, but rather on a case-by-case basis. “In many cases, the VR experience is too real,” Ma explained. “For crimes that are particularly bloody, or that involve especially cruel acts, the witnesses will be mentally vulnerable, so extra care should be taken in such cases.” Those assisting in the legal process, he said, should not be compelled to relive potentially traumatic experiences. In recent years, China’s judicial system has searched for ways to harness the power of artificial intelligence and build “smarter courts” that utilize big data, cloud computing, neural networks, and machine learning. In September of last year, state news agency Xinhua reported that over the course of four months, courts in the southwestern city of Chongqing handled 4,589 cases involving credit card disputes using an AI-enabled “smart trial platform.” Rather than having to appear in court, financial institutions filed lawsuits and submitted evidence online — with each case saving 27 working days on average. // Source: Sixth Tone, 2 March 2017, http://www.sixthtone.com/news/1001846/vr-technology-called-to-the-stand-in-beijing-court
2. Live-streaming teaching is underway to narrow the gap of education quality between rural and urban school
As part of President Xi Jinping’s plan to eradicate poverty and upgrade the quality of education in rural areas by 2020, the Chinese government has increasingly been implementing internet connection and live-streaming technology in rural schools. According to a South China Morning Post article, the policy has by far proven its effectiveness to improve the learning experiences among rural school children. For example, Lumacha primary school – a school in Dingxi that plummeted down to only three students due to rural-urban migration in recent years and one of over 1,000 schools in Gansu province with less than five students – has benefitted enormously from high-speed internet connectivity and live-streaming teaching. As one of the 28 schools in Dingxi participating in the Sunshine Classroom initiative of Hujiang EdTech, Lumacha is now equipped with a large touchscreen display, a webcam, and wireless internet. While Lumacha had never had any music and art classes due to the absence of teaching specialists, live-streaming technologies have now enabled teachers to broadcast their classes to participating schools within the same educational zone. At the moment, there are more and more educational initiatives that use technology to enhance their learning experiences of low income students, such as the Shenzhen-based Pujiang Technology that “works with smaller schools in cities like Chengdu, Nanjing, and Zhuhai, which often enrol “left-behind” children whose parents have moved to bigger cities and urban areas in search for better-paying jobs, but leave the kids behind in the care of relatives” (SCMP, 6 March 2018).
- // In February Beijing authorities announced they would boost internet speeds in rural schools so they are on par with major cities within two years, with China Unicom, the country’s second-largest mobile network operator, providing 100 Mbps cable service to provincial schools. Technology development has also been a priority for the central government, with the goal of improving the country’s living standards. At the Two Sessions meetings this week Chinese premier Li Keqiang called for the strengthening of China’s basic research capabilities, including the launching of a number of science and technology innovation programmes, building national laboratories and encouraging corporations to spearhead similar innovation. […] Wu at Hujiang Edtech believes that the biggest advantage of using the internet to live-stream classes to rural students is that it gives them a peek into the world beyond their village, and even to countries outside China. In May, Sunshine Classroom organised a live-streamed virtual tour in cooperation with the Frederiksborg Castle Museum in Denmark, where students had a chance to interact with museum curator Mette Skouggard. // Source: South China Morning Post, 6 March 2018, http://www.scmp.com/tech/china-tech/article/2135718/china-connects-remote-schools-technology-part-goal-eliminate-poverty
- // 國聯通近日與教育部續簽了戰略合作框架協議。雙方將在加快教育信息化科學發展，推動教育變革和創新等方面繼續全面合作。 根據協議，在教育信息化基礎支撐能力建設方面,到2020年，中國聯通將實現城鎮、農村學校互聯網出口帶寬不低于100M，有條件的教學點接入帶寬達50M以上；在教育信息化專項培訓領域,聯通為教育部培訓不少于1000名教育廳局長，為職業院校培訓3000名校長和6000名骨幹教師；聯通將啟動千所名校智慧校園示范項目，同時支持國家教育扶貧工作；聯通還將借助混改契機，運用雲計算、物聯網、大數據等信息技術支持教育教學新模式試點，為高考改革等提供信息技術支持。 中國聯通表示，將抓住國家實施教育信息化2.0的機遇，為我國教育信息化事業作出更大貢獻。同時，中國聯通將持續推進戰略轉型、深化混合所有制改革、全面實施互聯網化運營，實現高質量發展。// Source: Xinhua, 19 February 2018, http://big5.xinhuanet.com/gate/big5/cx.xinhuanet.com/2018-02/19/c_136984542.htm
CHINA – SOCIETY
Report shows that women earn 22% less than men on average due to cultural attitudes and preferences for convenience when evaluating job opportunities
A report published by Zhaopin, one of the largest online recruitment platforms in China, who has surveyed 102,415 employees, found that women earn 22% than men: the average monthly income for men is 8,006 RMB while that for women is 6,589. According to the 2018 Report on the Current Situation of Chinese Women in the Workplace, while the income gap between men and women is relatively small for entry-level positions, the gap widens as men are much more often to be promoted to high-level positions. This is partly because the attitude toward work about women as homemakers is still prevalent in today’s society. Guo Sheng, CEO of Zhaopin, has suggested that such cultural belief will be perpetuated as China is currently encouraging families to have a second child and urged the government to take on the maternity costs which companies are shouldering nowadays. The report also cites the women employees’ preference for convenience as an important factor when selecting a job is another reason that explains the income gap. China’s widening gender wage gap was also observed in World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report 2017 which ranked China 100th out of 144 countries, dropping by one spot from 2016.
- // 而男性则更多的集中在“论资排辈，不重能力”“任人唯亲”等职场不良现象。 […] 调查显示，平均而言，女性投入家庭的时间比男性高15%。在工作选择中，职场女性的首要考虑因素是“上下班方便”（35.9%），而职场男性首要考虑的因素是“能获得成长和发展”。女性对通勤因素的重视既是出于时间成本的考虑，更是方便顾及家庭的权衡。首要考虑上下班方便无形中让女性在选择工作机会时的半径缩小，可能会丧失更多潜在优秀机会。[…] 调查显示，女性对家庭经济的贡献已经达到35%，同时女性的收入除更多地参与到提高生活品质和家庭长远发展里，对个人学习进修的投入也高出男性6%。// Source: 中国青年报, 6 March 2018, http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2018-03-06/doc-ifyrzinh4448753.shtml
- // Once dubbed as a group that could “hold up half the sky” by late leader chairman Mao Zedong, factors ranging from personal confidence to a cultural bias over the role of women as homemakers helped explain the gap, the study showed, which was calculated on data drawn from monthly wage figures. “Women’s dreams are still being restrained, their value being underestimated and their potential.” […] The income gap could be partly explained by another key finding: women devote 15 per cent more time to family than men. Women were also more likely to cite convenience as the most important factor when evaluating job opportunities. Married women placed special emphasis on convenience, saying it outweighed “opportunity to grow” as a criteria when selecting a job, as they sought to juggle home and work commitments. // Source: South China Morning Post, 8 March 2018, http://www.scmp.com/business/china-business/article/2136228/job-convenience-cited-factor-why-women-earn-less-china
HONG KONG – SOCIETY
Public opinion survey shows Hong Kong people’s appraisal of the 2018-19 Budget reaches record low
According to an instant poll of the Public Opinion Programme (POP) at the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong people’s appraisal of the Financial Secretary Paul Chan’s second Budget Speech has reached the lowest since the survey was first conducted in 2008. With a net satisfaction rate of negative 14% (26% satisfied, 41 % not; down by 29% from Chan’s first Budget last year), the survey reflects Hong Kong people were generally dissatisfied with the government’s distribution of its large surpluses of HK$138 billion (fiscal reserves now hit HK$1,092 trillion). Some of this year’s major funding plans include HK$50 billion for the development of innovative technology (additional to the HK$10 billion from last year), HK$20 billion for the improvement of cultural facilities, and HK$6 billion for the Hospital Authority. The fiscal blueprint is also set out to ease the financial pressure of middle-class families by reducing salaries tax by 75% (ceiling of HK$30,000) and provide one-time measures for social security recipients such as two months of allowance and property rates waiver. Besides the absence of effective measures to address worsening housing shortage and make housing more affordable, lawmakers and political commentators alike were critical of the Budget for not making enough effort to reach out to the “N-nothing” population (N無人士) who were neither eligible for tax (e.g. low income workers who are not required to pay tax) nor rent reduction (e.g. poor people waiting for public housing). Coming as a surprise to Hong Kong residents, instead of giving out money like the Scheme $6,000 during the 2011 financial year, Chan’s Budget proposed an exam fee waiver for candidates taking the Diploma of Secondary Education (DSE) and 10,000 free tickets to Ocean Park for primary and secondary school students.
- // 政府的額外收入，主要來自地產發展以及物業和股票買賣。這些經濟活動不會惠及基層市民；相反，政府在地價和印花稅的龐大收入，意味著市民要捱貴樓貴租。另一方面，上年度政府開支比預算少170億元，主要是由於長者生活津貼及低收入在職家庭津貼的支出較預算低。這又顯示政府推出的紓困措施，效果比預期打了折扣。此消彼長，政府的財政盈餘暴增至1,380億元，等如預算的8.5倍；財政儲備在本年3月31日將增至10,920億元，另房屋儲備金達788億元。[…] 預算案提出的，除了減稅之外，仍是以往最常見的「紓困」措施：退稅、免差餉、綜援發「雙糧」以及利用關愛基金協助「N無住戶」等，加上對學生學習和考試費用的一些津貼。推行這些措施，縱然有不少人可以受惠，但給社會整體帶來的正面感覺，跟政府錄得的龐大盈餘並不相稱。政府就是不肯派錢，因為不能接受財富再分配的理念。// Source: am730, 1 March 2018, https://www.am730.com.hk/column/%E6%96%B0%E8%81%9E/%E4%B8%8D%E8%82%AF%E6%B4%BE%E9%8C%A2-117343
- // Executive councillor Regina Ip Lau Suk-yee slammed the idea of plugging loopholes through the fund as “demeaning and inappropriate”. She earlier called on the government to give HK$3,000 (US$380) each to permanent residents aged 18 and above who “pay no tax and have no properties”. Taking aim at Chan’s latest remarks, Ip said: “Why should people left out of the financial secretary’s largesse, through no fault of their own, be required to apply to the fund as though they are welfare applicants?” […] The city’s largest pro-establishment party, the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong also expressed dissatisfaction. Its lawmakers, Ann Chiang Lai-wan and Elizabeth Quat, held a press conference on Saturday morning, alongside residents from the grass roots, urging the government to do more. “Can the government waive one month’s rent for public housing tenants first? Then they may further help those who missed out through the Community Care Fund,” Quat said, raising concerns that the strict ceiling for one-off living allowances under the fund might not help many of those who received no budget perks. // Source: South China Morning Post, 3 March 2018, http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/economy/article/2135542/government-will-look-helping-those-who-missed-out-hong-kong
- // With Hong Kong now comparable to New York in terms of income inequality, and amid persistent worries that the city’s role as a financial center is being eclipsed by the likes of Shenzhen or Shanghai, news of bumper fiscal takings is likely to prompt a barrage of calls on how to spend them. Lam has hinted that the first budget under her leadership would include more « daring » spending. “They can use policy buffers to support growth in the long run,” Mahamoud Islam, an economist at Euler Hermes, said in a phone interview. The windfall provides an opportunity to invest with an eye towards a more difficult global economic outlook potentially as soon as 2019, he said. Islam suggests the most immediate investments are in boosting research and development activity. The city should position itself as a source of professional talent for China’s Belt and Road Initiative, encouraging education programs that nurture more architects, engineers, consultants and other commercial services providers, he said. // Source: Bloomberg, 26 February 2018, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-02-25/hong-kong-s-dilemma-is-what-to-do-with-its-massive-pile-of-cash
TAIWAN – POLITICS
China relaxed restrictions on cross-strait investments and cultural exchanges amid heightened political tensions
According to a statement issued by China’s Taiwan Affairs Office, 29 government agencies have drafted a policy outlining 31 measures to relax restrictions on Taiwan’s companies and foster cross-strait investments, and cultural exchanges. The measures welcome Taiwanese companies’ involvement in some of China’s core industries such as energy, transportation, infrastructure, and entertainment, as well as give Taiwanese skilled workers equal treatments by recognizing their professional qualifications. According to Professor Zhu Songling at Beijing Union University, “the integration of economy and society across the Taiwan Strait is a process of reunification, and economic unification is a way to lead to the reunification of politics and regimes” (Bloomberg, 28 February 2018). Taiwan’s Mainland Affairs Council saw the initiative as a move to further suppress Taiwan’s autonomy and has responded by accusing the policy as China’s latest strategy to “buy out” Taiwanese people’s political identification (“以利益換取台灣的政治認同”).
- // 近年來，往返兩岸的廣大台胞台商呼籲和期待「同等待遇」，大陸於是持續向台灣同胞開放與大陸居民相一致的多項「同等待遇」，為台企、台商、台生以及到大陸創業的台灣青年提供支持與便利，這次推出31條措施正是回應台胞的呼聲。[…] 日前，號稱「知陸派」的陳明通回鍋陸委會，有人認為這是重新恢復兩岸接觸的適當安排。但陸委會28日的這番回應……看來換了主委的陸委會，還是老思維，沒有「新氣象」，也難有「新人新眼光」；對兩岸關係的現實和大勢、民眾的期盼和需要，皆一派晉惠帝「何不食肉糜」一般的作派。「春江水暖鴨先知」，兩岸關係和兩岸政策如何，要問問台商台生們，問問往來兩岸的人，他們最清楚。陸委會對廣大台胞台商的需求和呼聲充耳不聞，卻動輒用「陰謀論」的伎倆攻擊大陸的對台政策，嚇唬台灣老百姓，只會越來越讓人生厭。// Source: 聯合報, 2 March 2018, https://udn.com/news/story/7331/3007862
- // Since Tsai took office almost two years ago, Beijing has worked to suppress Taiwan’s presence on the global arena. China has cut Taiwan’s participation in international organizations and lured away some of its diplomatic allies: In June, Beijing won over Panama, one of fewer than two dozen nations that recognize the government in Taiwan, prompting concerns that others like Vatican or Paraguay would follow suit. Taiwanese technology companies stand to be among the biggest beneficiaries of the policy changes. Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., the major producer of microprocessors for tech giants including Apple Inc. and Qualcomm Inc., is building up capacity in Nanjing to feed Chinese customers’ growing appetite for electronics. […] Companies from Taiwan will also gain unparalleled access to China’s growing entertainment industry. The new rules exempt the island from quotas set by China on all non-mainland content and production, including restrictions on imported content, and casting and financing of co-produced films and television dramas. // Source: Bloomberg, 28 February 2018, https://www.bloombergquint.com/politics/2018/02/28/china-unveils-sweeping-plan-to-attract-investments-from-taiwan